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Hameentie Helsinki Puhelin: Ich habe mich nun mehrere Monaten mit dem Vertrieb von Nu Skin und besonders mit den Leuten, die wirklich Geld damit verdienen, beschäftigt. There are many puzzles in what I call the "Instant Insanity Family. The team of writers is prepared to undertake crafting projects on any doable subject, and any deadline urgency.

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En France apparaît ' publie. À partir de , la qualité de lecture sur écran des liseuses s'étant considérablement améliorée, le livre numérique connait un nouvel essor auprès du grand public. En , la progression en termes de parts de marché devient très significative aux États-Unis [ 10 ].

De nombreux éditeurs commencent à distribuer, sous forme électronique, des livres tombés dans le domaine public. Au même moment, pour une question de coûts et de rentabilité, certains éditeurs préfèrent publier leurs auteurs de cette manière. Avant que ne commence la production de livres numériques, il a toujours été question de livres en tant qu'objet matériel tel qu'il est défini sur la page Wikipédia Livre. C'est ainsi que lorsque sont parus les premiers livres numériques, une certaine partie du lectorat mondial a d'abord eu un mouvement de recul par rapport au fait d'avoir un texte en format numérique et non en format papier.

Même le pionnier Michael Hart a éprouvé des doutes quant à l'aboutissement de son projet: La question de l'habitude est donc primordiale lors de l'apparition sur le marché les premiers livres numériques: La réception est aussi intrinsèquement liée à l'accès au web des lecteurs.

Ainsi, la création du web en [ 6 ] permet un premier essor auprès des publics spécialisés, mais n'atteint pas encore le grand public. Un deuxième essor du livre numérique arrive une décennie plus tard, avec la généralisation du web et l'amélioration de la qualité des livres numériques. Cet usage est toutefois fautif puisque, comme sa définition l'indique, le livre numérique est un fichier numérique et non l'appareil électronique qui permet de le consulter.

Si contenu et contenant sont souvent interchangés, il ne faut également pas confondre le livre numérique avec son format ePub, mobipocket ou autre. Il existe dans les faits plusieurs types de livres numériques.

Fabrice Marcoux en relève trois dominants: Il s'agit de la forme la plus répandue et de la première à être apparue. Ce type de livre vient compléter la version imprimée grâce aux avantages que permettent le format numérique, tant au niveau de la forme que du contenu. On pense notamment aux hyperliens. Pour cette raison, il possède une forte hypertextualité, mais il est plus récent et moins commun que les précédents. Trois qualités ont été identifiées par Marin Dacos et Pierre Mounier: Le livre numérique doit être manipulable, pour cela il faut que l'on puisse indexer son contenu et effectuer des recherches.

Enfin, le texte doit aussi être annotable et inscriptible annotations, remarques, jalons, etc. Le livre doit être citable et ce, de façon simple. Le numérique conduit vers des solutions reposant sur la logique d'un identifiant unique ID.

Plusieurs dispositifs mis en place dans différents environnements et reposant sur des logiques différentes se sont développés. Ces identifiants uniques décrivent des objets éditoriaux, c'est-à-dire un titre d'ouvrage ou un titre de périodique. Un passage donné d'un ouvrage, lorsqu'on en connaît un mot spécifique, se retrouve rapidement même si le document ne possède pas d'index. Le texte peut être annoté et inscriptible annotations, remarques, jalons, etc. Le livre numérique peut en effet être restitué sur un appareil adapté, en affichage braille par exemple ou encore en restitution sonore.

Au cours des dernières années, une forte croissance des livres numériques a eu lieu dans divers pays en développement, notamment en Inde [ 17 ]. Pour lui, le livre numérique est un réel atout qui va contribuer au développement des pays émergents. Les livres numériques ont un intérêt éducatif mais aussi économique.

Le gouvernement indien via cette solution vient combattre ce fléau. Le livre numérique est donc un atout majeur au développement du pays. L'avvento degli eBook ha tuttavia sollevato anche una serie di problematiche. Questo tipo di prodotto è infatti soggetto allo stesso tipo di attività illegale - definita pirateria digitale - che coinvolge anche film e musica. Nel tentativo di combattere questa piaga, il 27 maggio l'Alta Corte inglese ha decretato per i 5 grandi fornitori di servizi internet del Regno Unito - BT, EE, Sky, TalkTalk, Virgin Media - l'obbligo di interdire l'accesso a 7 siti internet accusati di offrire in maniera illegale un totale di 10 milioni di eBook [23].

Da molti anni, l'ebook circola sia in campo professionale che in quello scientifico, tuttavia è solo grazie all'ampia diffusione degli e-reader che l'ebook diventa accessibile al grande pubblico. L'Associazione italiana editori Aie , ha recentemente reso noto le impressionanti cifre che testimoniano l'ampia diffusione della pirateria di ebook.

Infatti, analizzando i dati, emerge che in Italia, su 19 mila ebook, ben 15 mila sono disponibili nella versione pirata. Proprio in Italia, il fenomeno della pirateria sembra essersi diffuso più che in altri paesi. Al fine di studiare il problema, è stato pubblicato un ebook intitolato Le isole dei pirati , a cura dell'Aie e scritto dal legale esperto di pirateria Renato Esposito. Da questo studio, è emerso in Italia vengono rimossi ebook al giorno, con un ritmo che porterà a mila rimozioni alla fine del , ovvero 40mila in più rispetto al precedente anno.

Non è necessario essere particolarmente esperti. Tuttavia, è difficile poter quantificare in termini economici la reale perdita, siccome molte persone, probabilmente, non leggerebbero neppure se dovessero pagare per avere accesso ad un libro elettronico. Coloro che caricano sul web internet illegalmente, non agiscono in maniera disinteressata, ma per guadagnarne. Infatti, i siti su cui viene eseguito l'upload guadagnano mediante la pubblicità e gli account premium degli utenti che scaricano dati.

Chi mette on line file riceve denaro dal servizio hosting, in base alla dimensioni e alle migliaia di scaricamenti. Inoltre, ne ricavano profitto le compagnie pubblicitarie che forniscono le inserzioni ai servizi di hosting e i provider di servizi finanziari attraverso cui i pagamenti possono avvenire anonimamente.

Secondo alcuni dati resi noti recentemente nel Regno Unito, l'editoria è il settore meno afflitto dai download illegali e dalla pirateria online in tutta l'industria dell'intrattenimento. La ricerca, condotta in Uk da Kantar Media, rivela che i consumatori di ebook sono quelli che hanno pagato in numero maggiore per i contenuti di cui hanno usufruito rispetto ai consumatori di altro tipo film, musica, videogames ecc.

Per Richard Mollet, responsabile dell'Associazione degli Editori inglese, le "ragioni per cui i lettori preferiscono i servizi legali a quelli illegali sono la convenienza e la reperibilità". Le vie per procurarsi ebook piratati, in effetti, sono spesso impervie e, a volte, il prezzo già basso dei libri digitali non giustifica rischi e perdite di tempo.

La pirateria è un fenomeno dilagante che affligge ulteriormente l'industria culturale, già provata da anni di crisi. Spesso, molti di loro non ottengono alte entrate, tanto che un minor apporto potrebbe comportare la cessazione della loro attività produttiva.

Ad esempio, in Spagna, Paese colpito dalla pirateria anche più dell'Italia, un recente rapporto della Coalición de Creadores e Industrias de Contenidos quindi non solo l'industria dei libri ha stimato che la pirateria ha distrutto 30 mila posti di lavoro diretti, ai quali si aggiungerebbero altri mila impieghi indiretti se fosse debellata.

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Contribuisci a migliorarla secondo le convenzioni di Wikipedia. NJ Arrange the five disks so that alternate rows have five different colors, then three different colors. The five disks are separate and may be removed from the case and re-ordered. The Buvos Golyok is a clever variant using balls enclosed in a tube. These versions use octahedrons rather than cubes, and a clever mirrored base to allow one to see all faces. The cubes are usually labeled with colors, but sometimes numbers are used Twenty Teazer Arrange the cubes so that each side totals Kathy's Kubes by R.

Gee Arrange so dots total 10 on each long side. This type of puzzle can be arranged vertically, too Below is my solution to the Masudaya Cubes, using the graphical technique. The connectivity of this graph is similar to that of the Nice Cubes, though its edges seem differently labeled. Are the puzzles in fact isomorphic? Explorations So, why have so many puzzles over the years simply copied the topology of the Schossow-Katjenjammer cubes?

Is it so difficult to find a different set of four cubes that satisfies the constraints and yet has only one solution? I set out to try to answer that question - here are notes on my explorations and findings. Recall that there are ways to color a cube using 4 colors.

Given a "stable" of cubes from which to choose four, how many possible 4-cube sets are there? To allow repeats but eliminate sets that are identical since the ordering of the 4 cubes does not matter , we use the formula for a multicombination: So, we've got over million sets to explore! Also, for a set of 4 cubes, there are 41, possible ways to arrange them - that's going to be a lot of work. But we can reduce this by eliminating from consideration all cubes that do not have at least one face of each color.

It's a little arbitrary, and it means my conclusions are not universal over the entire universe of possible puzzles, but I think it's reasonable - most commercial puzzles comply. Of the possible four-color cubes, there are 68 that use all four colors at least once each. Each cube can be represented by a four-node, 3-edge pseudograph, where the nodes are the four colors symbolized by the letters ABCD and each edge corresponds to a pair of opposing faces on the cube.

The graphs are the same for mirror-image cubes, since the edges are undirected. The 68 cubes give rise to only 52 unique graphs. The colors identify the six groups. It should be easy to construct a cube given its little diagram and the key on the lower right. You just have to decide on your assignment of actual colors to ABCD, and then be sure to remain consistent. Rick assigned numbers to these groups as follows, and noted that cubes in a group have the given number of possible effective orientations within a puzzle, ranging from 10 to A higher number of possible orientations might contribute to a harder puzzle.

You can see some of the cube models I made - I affixed a small label to each cube, showing its ID number. One bucket does not contain enough color panels to make all 52 cubes simultaneously. I created a program to solve a 4-cube set, and used it within another program that explores 4-cube sets taken from the stable of 52 cubes above.

I did not allow repeated cubes in a set - so, here again, I have simplified the problem space, but again I believe in a reasonable manner.

I also eliminated repeated sets that differed only by the order in which the same cubes were selected, but this entails no loss of generality. This resulted in , sets being tried - a run that easily completed overnight on my PC.

Here is a chart of number of solutions, number of sets that have the given number of solutions, and the first set found that has that number of solutions. I have omitted solution counts where no set had that number of solutions. A set is represented by its "signature" - an eight-digit number zeroes on the left, if dropped, should be inferred that is simply the four cube IDs from the chart, concatenated, always from lowest numerical ID on the left to highest on the right. There were many sets - almost half - that had no solution at all.

Some sets have more than one solution, and the maximum number of solutions any set can have seems to be Most solvable sets have four solutions. There is only one set that has exactly 27 solutions, and 27 solutions is the only count where only one set has that count. Interestingly, the cubes used for this set are the four from the yellow group in the chart.

It is not hard to solve this set by hand. Based on a cursory check, it appears that none of the cubes in groups 5 tan or 6 blue are used at all in single-solution sets! I ran the single-solution sets through my program that computes a puzzle's certificate and checks if it is isomorphic to SK.

I found that 24 of the are iso. If all four cubes in a set are permuted in a consistent manner, one may arrive at another set - and the two sets are in some sense the same puzzle. Rick Eason says that by using Burnside's Lemma to eliminate color permutations, the , figure can be collapsed to 11, sets.

If we further eliminate the 12 cubes not used in single-solution sets the tan and blue groups , we end up with only sets. I did not perform this collapsing for my runs, so my totals do not take into account color permutations. In a brief paper entitled On "The Tantalizer" and "Instant Insanity" PDF online here , Frank Harary , recognized as one of the fathers of modern graph theory, notes that "Using standard methods of graphical enumeration [Harary and Palmer ], it is not difficult to develop a formula for the number of different 'Tantalizer' games with four cubes.

This can be done by associating a graph with each such game, and then counting graphs. If you know of one, please let me know! Here are the 24 signatures for the sets that share the SK certificate, 01 04 20 40 01 14 36 39 02 03 22 45 02 12 33 44 03 07 17 40 03 14 26 47 03 30 35 38 04 08 16 45 04 12 28 32 04 29 37 46 06 20 33 47 06 22 32 39 07 10 28 30 07 14 44 48 07 18 39 46 08 10 26 37 08 12 36 51 08 18 33 38 12 20 25 35 13 17 33 37 13 22 30 51 14 22 25 29 15 16 30 39 15 20 37 48 The set identified by O'Beirne in his Great Tantalizer article in Figure 1 is the first listed, SK consists of 1 cube from group 2 green , 1 cube from group 3 teal , and 2 from group 4 lavender.

Rick suggests that the most difficult puzzles will consist of only cubes from groups 1 yellow and 4 lavender , since those groups offer the most possible orientations 24 each. Rick found the following 13 single-solution sets using only cubes from groups 1 and 4: The single-solution sets I found group into just distinct certificates. I believe this reduction is also due to the permutations of the color assignments.

The certificate with the smallest number of sets having that certificate is shared by only six sets: In each set, a given pair of colors appears only once each on adjacent sides on all four cubes, with the other four sides of each cube having the other two colors. The graph of such a cube will have only one edge leading from each of the two colors, which will not share an edge.

In signature order, they are: These sets are easy to solve - identify the special colors. Orient all cubes so that the sides with the special colors are on top and front. Now it is a simple matter to turn three of them so that the solution is found. At the other end of the scale, there is one certificate that encompasses sets: According to my analysis, there should be distinct single-solution puzzles, where every cube uses all four colors, and each set uses four distinct cubes.

You can download a text file "single-soln-sigs-and-certs. Those sets isomorphic to SK are noted. The tail of the file contains a summary of the unique certificates and the count of sets having a given certificate. Wellingtons Cube Puzzles An extensive set of additional puzzles in the Instant Insanity family were offered by three U. Many of them comprise four, six, or eight clear plastic cubes containing images on each side.

In several cases the objectives are a departure from that of the Instant Insanity family. The table below lists, in mostly alphabetical order I tried to keep sequels together , those I know of and shows images where I either have a copy or have been able to find pictures. I don't have them all and I will note the ones I don't have.

Those I have are highlighted like this. Those I do not have are highlighted like this. I would like to acknowledge the following: The generous Liz Burrow , who gave me several of these puzzles, and Martin Watson, who was kind enough to bring them to me in Prague. Colin James , a fellow collector, who has also sent me puzzles and helped catalogue the puzzles, supplying many photos of his collection.

Bananas Bananas Onsworld Ltd. Unlike a standard II-type puzzle, the images have distinct orientations which must be respected to form the complete bananas. The tips, stems, and middle segments must all be aligned properly.

A little analysis reveals that the usual four-in-a-row arrangement of the cubes cannot satisfy the goal - but then, the objective does not stipulate that arrangement, does it? Bunkered Bunkered Wellingtons "Tee-off by placing the cubes together then rearrange them to show, simultaneously, TWO identical golf courses.

Image from Jim Storer's collection. Here is a possible alternative package: Cuss Cuss Onsworld Ltd. No foreign words or proper names allowed. A clue in case you get stuck and a solution are included. Double Cross Double Cross Wellingtons Fascinating Felines Fascinating Felines - Wellingtons Footsie Footsie Wellingtons "Arrange the four cubes in a square so that wherever the surfaces of two cubes join top, bottom, and sides pairs of feet are formed.

Frantic Frantic Onsworld Ltd. An alternative version of Frantic, with solid colors. Colin says it is the same graph. Also issued with black backgrounds. Frantic II Frantic II "Place the cubes together in a square so that wherever they meet, top, bottom, and sides, the coloured squares match. The letters must all point the same way. Try it - then baffle them at the 19th. Nuts Nuts Wellingtons "Place the four cubes in a row and simply rearrange them so that one of each kind of nut shows on each long side.

Kenneth Miller Two puzzles based on the two versions of Rugby - for the Rugby League fan, place the cubes in a straight line so that each long side shows exactly 13 pieces of muddy lace. For the Rugby Union fan, place the cubes in a straight line so that each long side shows exactly 15 pieces of muddy lace. Kenneth Miller Thanks to Rob Hegge for photos.

Spellbound - alternative version - Onsworld Ltd. This and the other Tantalizer puzzles seem to be more dexterity than Insanity-type. Tantalizer Frustration I don't have this. Photo from Slocum collection. Tantalizer Jet Set I don't have this. Top Dart Top Dart Total Distraction Total Distraction Wellingtons "Put the cubes together to form one large cube with all rows, columns, and diagonals having the same total: Arrange cubes so that ladybird sic tracks reach from top to bottom on all four sides.

Ladybirds need not point all the same way. They're all made of sturdy cardboard. Some of them are shown elsewhere on this site. Waddington was bought by Hasbro in for 50M pounds. Read an article about Hasbro's spree. Various pamphlets or sheets accompanying the different puzzles mention other puzzles in the lineup. Several mention 5 puzzles but list 6; one describes Mindbenders as "a fiendish series of six diabolical puzzles" but then lists eight. I have found ten altogether.

The most frequently mentioned, most dating from , are: The Path Less often mentioned, dating from and , are: The Path Form a 3x4 rectangle using 12 colored square tiles which are each printed at from 1 to 3 of their corners with small circles. There are 4 tiles each of 3 different colors, blue, orange, and pink.

All pink must be in the first row, all orange in the second, and all blue in the 3rd. The Perfect Square Assemble a square using 12 pieces - like colors must not touch. The Tricky Triangle Using 10 barbell-shaped pieces composed of two linked circles each, and one single circle, build an edge-6 equilateral triangle of 21 circles such that "no two circles of the same color are in the same line of the triangle. The Perfect Circle Assemble a circle from 16 pieces in 4 basic shapes and 3 different colors, such that like-colored pieces don't touch.

The Wobbly Web Copyright No. Create a "pyramid" of cards - a 3x3 base, then a 2x2 layer, then one card on top - layers must align over spots, and spot colors must match vertically. The Reluctant Rectangle Form a rectangle from the 12 3x2 L-shaped pieces such that no two pieces of the same color touch in any way. There are 3 pieces each of four colors. All the pieces are "normally-handed" L's except for two of one color are reversed. Little Circles Pack 18 pieces formed from circles into the box.

The instructions are printed on the box, and there is no mention of a color-dismatching constraint. Coloured Square E Form a square from 12 L-shaped colored tiles such that like colors don't touch. Rectangle Tangle F Form a rectangle with a bi-color perimeter from the 10 tri-color and 2 bi-color L-Trominoes. Beat the Elf - by House of Games Corp. Don Mills, Ontario Build a 3x3x3 cube with the 13 blocks so that no face shows three squares in a row of either color, horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.

There are 11 1x1x2 blocks of 1 light and 1 dark. There is one 1x1x2 block of two darks. There is one 1x1x3 block of two lights adjacent and 1 dark. Kolor Kraze - by House of Games Corp. The Kolor Kraze puzzle consists of 12 dicubes and a tricube, each made of differently colored cubes. There are 3 each of 9 different colors. As in the Gram's Cube, the goal is to create a 3x3x3 cube from the pieces, such that each of the 9 colors appears only once in each of the six faces of the cube.

Cube Fusion Alright, it's a game not a puzzle, but I remembered these pieces from my childhood and now I know what they belonged to! Other Color-Constraint Puzzles There are several other puzzles, cousins to Instant Insanity rather than siblings - which involve some kind of color constraints. The puzzle consists of 27 Lego-like cubies that mate side-to-side as well as up-and-down.

There are 3 cubies each of nine different colors. The objective is to construct a 3x3x3 cube such that each side shows all 9 colors. At first I thought a trick was necessary, but I found a solution using all 27 cubies. I purchased this quite some time ago.

Level Q consists of a hexagonal board and twelve bar-bell shaped pieces. There are three challenges - first, build seven stacks of six disks each. Next, again build seven stacks of equal height, but such that one bar lies on each side of the hexagon and on each of the six spokes. Finally, satisfy the constraints already mentioned, and also ensure that each stack contains only one of each color disk. The Trapagon and Magzphere Six pieces interlock - arrange them so that there are five different colors on each "face.

The Golf Smarts Pyramid a gift from Brett is similar. Tetraball - designed by John Conway and Richard Esterle You can read about this puzzle at ludus-opuscula. You may notice the label on mine is mirror-written. That's intentional - I bought a rarer version.

Purchased at NYPP Make a set of small 4-ball tetrahedrons, then assemble them into a large tetrahedron such that like colored balls do not touch. Icosa - issued by Brainwright Several challenges, including to twist the balls so that none of the same color touch, or to twist them so that there are all groups of three like-colored balls touching in triangles.

There are 3 challenges: Position or pile the cubes to show only the 6 green spots and no others. Show only the 8 yellow spots. Show only the 4 red spots. Spots face-down on the table are considered hidden. Each piece is one of four colors. Sherman Oaks CA, Four cubic frames and a stepped pedestal.

Each cubic frame contains twelve bars, 3 each of four overall different colors, arranged in various patterns. The four cubes are of graduated sizes and nest on the pedestal.

The objective is to arrange the cubes in nested form on the pedestal so that each of the twelve sets of four aligned bars, one from each cube, contains one of each of the four colors.

Four multi-player games and a solitaire puzzle - assemble the 13 unique pieces each is a four or five-unit polycube into a 4x4x4 cube such that every side is a single different color.

Here is a review at Boardgamegeek. The puzzle solution is available at IQideas. Octamania Arrange the 8 cubes into a 2x2x2 cube such that each face shows four copies of a digit. Create a 2x2x2 cube having a single color on each side. Then create a 2x2x2 with each of four colors on every side. The Maze Cube - stack the four bricks together to make a 2x2x2 having four colors on each face.

Poker Cubes I don't have any documentation with this puzzle, so I don't know the provenance or goal. However, I suspect the goal is to create a 2x2x2 having one of each of the four suit symbols on every side, while also ensuring each 2x2 face is a single color with each face a different color.

Solution sent on receipt of 1d. The layout of the pieces and one solution are provided on page Analyzed by Len Gordon and found to have seven solutions. Len also found that the pieces could be arranged to show 11 on all faces in two ways. I finally found a Cover Up - issued by Ideal in , it originally appeared as Hepta in and was designed by the famous Alex Randolph.

See the entry for Hepta at Boardgamegeek. I had wanted to try this puzzle since reading about it at Celia Seide's website. Celia also pointed out Spielarchiv.

There are seven plastic 1x3 straight pieces and seven angle pieces. The plastic 7x7 board is colored using 7 colors each of which appears 7 times. For each of the 7 colors, use all the pieces to cover all the spots not of the target color. It's pretty large - I put a quarter coin on the cover.

It comprises eight cubes, each colored with four colors. Each cube uses each color at least once. There are several challenges, including building a 2x2x2 where every side shows all four colors, and another where every side is a solid color. Brain Wave Arrange the bi-colored pieces in the slots so that no color is repeated along any line of the triangle on both sides of the head.

Lucky 13 , Edition No. Comes with 38 translucent plastic pieces, each being one of 5 colors and 13 different shapes composed of unit squares joined by sides square polyominoes - each shape has a letter ID. The table below gives the shapes, grouped by color. The color cell gives x y , the count x of each piece type and the number y of unit squares the piece occupies. Any piece may be flipped. For the remaining four pieces, pick a puzzle number from 1 through 24 and find it in the chart below.

Each row and column is labeled with a piece ID. Use two copies of the piece identified by the row in which the puzzle number appears, and two copies of the piece identified by the column in which the puzzle number appears.

He is noted for, among other accomplishments, his results in the field of combinatorics. In and MacMahon produced a two-volume treatise on Combinatory Analysis which remains a respected work today. MacMahon also produced New Mathematical Pastimes , published in This work discusses his Colored Cubes, first introduced in a lecture he gave in [4]. If each of the n faces of a regular solid is colored with one of n colors, the number of different ways the solid can be colored with all n colors excluding rotations but including reflections is given by n!

For cubes with 6 faces and 12 edges, the number of possible colorings is 6! These 30 cubes form the set of MacMahon Colored Cubes. You can choose any of the 30 cubes to use as a "prototype" and it will be possible to find eight other cubes in the set which can be used to build a 2x2x2 model of the prototype having the same arrangement of solid colors on the six external 2x2 faces as on the prototype's six faces, and also satisfying the additional constraint that internal touching faces are colored alike.

MacMahon credited his friend Colonel Julian R. Jocelyn with the discovery that this can always be done regardless of which of the 30 cubes is chosen as the prototype. For each prototype, there is only one set of eight cubes which will work, and there will always be two ways to build the prototype with these eight cubes. A procedure to transform one solution into the other was devised by L.

Vosburgh Lyons and is shown in [2] on page The eight cubes to be selected will not possess any of the same pairs of opposing face colors as the prototype. This means that 13 of the 29 cubes can be eliminated as candidates, leaving 16 from which to choose. Lyons also discovered that after a 1st prototype is selected along with the eight cubes to model it, it is always possible to select another prototype from the remaining 21 cubes, and find another 8 cubes from the remaining 20 to model this 2nd prototype.

The 2nd prototype must be a mirror image of the 1st, and the eight cubes to model it are the eight not chosen from the 16 eligible for the modeling of the 1st prototype [2]. MacMahon sold an eight-cube puzzle patented in UK ? Journet, which marketed it as the Mayblox puzzle [4]. Its eight cubes are one of the sets which can model a prototype and meet the internal color-matching constraint.

However, the Mayblox puzzle does not specify the configuration of the prototype - so it must be deduced, which makes the puzzle more difficult. I made my own version of a Mayblox puzzle using LiveCube. I chose a prototype arrangement of six colors at random, then colored the 8 sub-cubes as required based on the solution instructions in [1]. I finally found a good use for the LiveCube face plates! Fortunately, they provide enough different colors with the addition of cyan and pink to their previously available black, red, yellow, green, and blue.

You are to build a 2x2x2 cube using 8 of the 9 included numbered dice, so that every face displays a unique number. Edge-Matching puzzles usually consist of a set of tiles whose edges have various distinct patterns, symbols, or colors. The following is my graphical or tabular solution to the Drive Ya Nuts puzzle.

Toyo Glass issued a series of puzzles where you stack clear glass coasters with various patterns: The Transposer series of puzzles was created and developed by Albatross Games Ltd. Smart Tease - from Kidult 14 strips, each having seven colored dots on one side and on the other small pins and sockets whereby strips can be joined. According to the Wikipedia entry , a Latin Square is an NxN matrix filled with N different symbols such that no symbol appears more than once in any row or column.

A Graeco-Latin or Greco-Latin Square also known as an Euler Square is constructed by superimposing two Latin Squares having the same order but different sets of symbols usually designated by using Latin letters for one of the squares' symbols and Greek letters for the other, hence the name Greco-Latin , such that each combination of symbols one from each Latin square occurs only once in the superposition. One of the earliest mechanical puzzles I ever had was an Instant Insanity given to me by my mother.

So, why have so many puzzles over the years simply copied the topology of the Schossow-Katjenjammer cubes? An extensive set of additional puzzles in the Instant Insanity family were offered by three U. Percy Alexander MacMahon was a mathematician who lived from to Odd Man Out is a version of the Mayblox puzzle, produced in wood using numbers rather than colors, by Dave Janelle at Creative Crafthouse. The Thurston design was used by Calumet ca. The Vess Mystery Puzzle two versions.

Pepsi edgematching puzzle Spanish. La Canadienne - an advertising promotion edgematching puzzle. The "33 to 1" Puzzle, advertising Pabst beer. Lionstone Whisky, Kentucky Camel - an advertising promo from a cigarette manufacturer. Bits and Pieces - match the color dots on the squares' edges.

Nitty Gritty - Arrange the colored tiles in the tray so that the edge patterns on all adjacent tiles match. Patent - Pavlovic DaMert 3D Squares Cars. A four-piece glass edge-matching puzzle made by Brett. The Great Canadian Puzzle. The Wobbly Web Create a rectangle from the 15 square tiles such that web strands join edgematching. New Departure Puzzle - advertising New Departure coaster brakes for bicycles.

Lagoon Group Safari series - Tiger Puzzle. Jungle Mega Puzzle - Lagoon. Vintage Chevrolet advertising edgematch. Holland America Edgematching puzzle. Perfect 10 from Creative Crafthouse. Norton Abrasives - a vintage 9-piece edgematching advertising puzzle. The Nine A laser-cut acrylic 3x3 edgematching challenge.

The Nestle's puzzle, published around , was the first 7-tile hexagonal edgematching puzzle. To me, the edge-matching puzzle is exemplified by the more recent but none-the-less venerable Drive Ya Nuts.

Match the Colors - Adams ca. Spider Puzzle - Toysmith. Pair It - made by Steve Kelsey Arrange the seven hexagonal pieces such that edges match.

The OXO Triangle puzzle. Contack A game not really a puzzle , played with 36 triangular pieces. BrainArt Level 4 - Ekos Designed by Klaus Schröer Arrange the 24 equilateral triangular tiles into a hexagon with one lizard in each cube, then solve four riddles. Triazzle - Alice in Wonderland. Tile-O-Rama Called the "Wonder Mosaic Puzzle" when it first appeared circa , this was the first design with rectangular tiles.

Double Half - Interkemia Concentra Atlantis Dan Gilbert A circular edgematching puzzle with pentagonal pieces. In this group of puzzles, several rods have been cut into fragments of different lengths - these must be fit into a base containing sockets drilled to different depths, such that the completed stacks all achieve the same height.

Patent - Stubbmann Here is another version of Even Steven, with blue plastic rod pieces to be inserted into a clear base. Tekozuru Z2 from Hikimi - purchased from Torito. Adele and Peter Plantec at Puzzle Me Please sent me a selection of their beautiful puzzles crafted from exotic woods. Integr8 , from the Dr. In Contoura, arrange the blocks so that the surface contour is correct.

The Enigma a dodecahedral edge-matching puzzle by Reiss, Hungarian Rock - a vintage 3D edgematching twisty puzzle. Chicago L - George Miller. I believe this is the "IQ Chain" puzzle, by D. The Path - from Family Games. This is Dice Dominoes. Metroville from Smart Games , designed by Raf Peeters - see his website at www. Perplexing Python issued by Pentangle.

Roundabout - invented by Volker Latussek Produced by Popular Playthings Use the 18 pieces of four different shapes to build a closed loop - assemble 50 challenges.

Demon Dino - William Waite. Dino Try - William Waite. Six Australian Animals designed by René Dawir. Cliko , by Foxmind Comes with a set of blocks and a booklet of problems. Along the same lines as the Toyo Glass puzzles, combined with the weave concept, Strip Tease requires you to create a 5x5 weave using 10 clear strips having various arrangements of quarter-squares so that all solid squares result.

On the Dot - Gamewright. Get a Clue from Pavel Curtis. Daily Puzzle - designed by Wei-Hwa Huang and Oskar van Deventer, produced by Thinkfun Six tiles must be paired and overlaid in variuous ways to form 3-latter month abbreviations, and four tiles must be similarly arranged to produce the date. The Eight Queens Problem requires you to place 8 queens on a standard 8x8 chessboard such that none attack each other - i. The problem is discussed by Edouard Lucas , inventor of the Towers of Hanoi puzzle, in his book L'Arithmetique Amusante available online , in which he gives the nice table of the 12 basic solutions shown below.

Hoo-Doo from Tryne, circa Bali Buttons Requires you to place the sixteen tokens - all combinations of four different shapes with four different colors - on the 4x4 board so that no row, column, or main diagonal contains more than one token with a given shape or color.

A Floral Derangement - Peterson Games The first puzzle in this family was designed and patented in by Frederick A. Here is a graph of the Katzenjammer puzzle, side-by-side with the graph for Instant Insanity: Devil's Dice - Pressman. Devil's Dice - made in Hong Kong No. Daffy Dots - Reiss Enigmus Not isomorphic to SK. Here is the graph - Psykonosis is not isomorphic to SK!

Suits Me - Steve Kelsey Arrange the four cubes in a row such that all four long sides show each suit once. There can be more than four cubes and four colors This is Meffert's "Drives You Crazy. Bognar Planets Bolygok - brown, white. Stan Isaacs sent me examples of his Doctor Octo and Dr. Tantalizing Ten - Shackman. Here is the graph - Neurotic Numbers is isomorphic to SK!

Match 'Em High - Roads. Match 'Em High - Pipes. Diabolical Diabolical Onsworld "Arrange the dice in a row so that the four long sides all carry the same total number of spots. Double Cross Double Cross Wellingtons Fascinating Felines Fascinating Felines - Wellingtons.

Footsie Footsie Wellingtons "Arrange the four cubes in a square so that wherever the surfaces of two cubes join top, bottom, and sides pairs of feet are formed. Golf Crazy Golf Crazy - Wellingtons. Grandstand I don't have this. Knickers Knickers - Wellingtons I don't have this.